Thursday, May 21, 2020

Carnaval Celebrations Worldwide

The word Carnaval refers to the numerous festivities that occur in many Catholic cities every year prior to the Lenten season. These festivals often last several days or weeks and are widely popular celebrations of local history and culture. Residents and visitors prepare for Carnaval festivities throughout the year. Revelers both young and old can enjoy numerous organized activities or party in the city streets with their families, friends, community members, and strangers. Religious and Historical Significance of Carnaval Lent is the Catholic season that represents the forty days prior to Jesus death on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter Sunday. Lent begins on Ash Wednesday, which usually falls in February. On certain days of Lent, Catholics are supposed to abstain from eating meat as a physical and spiritual reminder of Jesus sacrifices. The word Carnaval likely originates from the Latin term carne levare, or to remove meat. On the day before Ash Wednesday (Mardi Gras or Fat Tuesday,) many Catholics ate all of the meat and fat in their home  and held large parties in the streets as one last celebration before the penitential Lenten season. It is a time when all social classes could disguise themselves, congregate, and forget their usual tribulations. Carnaval originated in largely Catholic Southern Europe and spread to the Americas during the age of exploration and colonization. Carnaval Traditions All places that celebrate Carnaval generally have the same activities, but each Carnaval is infused with elements of local culture. During both day and night, revelers in the streets listen to music and dance, eat, and drink. Many cities hold balls and masquerades. The main tradition of Carnaval includes parades through the city streets. Many cities hold parades with floats, which are enormous, decorated vehicles that can carry dozens of riders, who often wear very elaborate, colorful costumes and masks. Parades usually have themes, which often parody current local political and social problems. What follows are some of the worlds most famous and popular Carnaval celebrations. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is home to the worlds most famous Carnaval and what many people consider to be the worlds biggest and best party. The basis of Rios Carnaval is the samba school, which is a social club named after the famous Brazilian samba dance. Samba schools are based in different neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro, and rivalry among them is fierce. Members work throughout the year to create the best themes, floats, costumes, and dance performances. Over the four day celebration, schools parade and compete against each other in the Sambadrome, a building that can hold 60,000 spectators. Millions of people also party throughout the city and on Rios famous beaches, Ipanema and Copacabana. New Orleans, Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana is home to Mardi Gras, the most popular Carnaval in the United States. Dozens of social clubs, called krewes, parade through the streets of New Orleans over a six week period. The people on the floats or on horseback throw small presents to the spectators, such as beads, plastic cups, and stuffed animals. Revelers party in the citys French Quarter. Mardi Gras still occurs annually, even after Hurricane Katrina impacted the city in 2005. Trinidad and Tobago The two small islands of Trinidad and Tobago are known for having the best Carnaval in the Caribbean Sea. Trinidads Carnaval has been influenced by African cultures due to the slave trade hundreds of years ago. On the two days before Ash Wednesday, revelers dance in the streets to the sounds of calypso music and steelpan drums. Venice, Italy Since the 12th century, Venices Carnaval has been well known for intricately created masks and masquerade balls. Throughout history, Venices Carnival was banned numerous times, but since 1979 the event has occurred annually. Many events occur in the citys famous canals. Additional Carnavals in the United States Although New Orleans has the most visited Mardi Gras in the United States, some smaller celebrations include those in: Mobile, AlabamaBiloxi, MississippiPensacola, FloridaGalveston, TexasBaton Rouge, Lafayette, and Shreveport, Louisiana Additional Carnavals in Latin America Besides Rio de Janeiro and Trinidad, many more cities in largely Catholic Latin America celebrate Carnaval. These include: Salvador, Recife, and Olinda, BrazilOruro, BoliviaBuenos Aires, ArgentinaMazatlan, MexicoSome cities in Colombia, Uruguay, Panama, and the Dominican Republic Additional Carnavals in Europe Many more cities still celebrate Carnaval on the continent where it originated. These include: Viareggio, ItalyTenerife Island, part of Spains Canary IslandsCadiz, SpainBinche, BelgiumCologne, GermanyDusseldorf, Germany Carnaval Entertainment and Imagination The activities of the Carnaval season, developed over centuries from religious and cultural rituals, have become enormously popular in several cities around the world. Large crowds congregate in the streets to enjoy the extravagant parades, rhythm of the music, and colorful costumes. Its an exciting, creative spectacle that no visitor will ever forget.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Attitudes to War in Dulce et Decorum est and Drummer...

Attitudes to War in Dulce et Decorum est and Drummer Hodge. Life wasnt easy for soldiers in the war as Wilfred Owen and Thomas Hardy express strongly in their legendary poems Dulce et Decorum est and Drummer Hodge. Peter Porter writes about the situation people may find themselves in when in, his poem Your Attention Please, he describes an announcement concerning a nuclear Rocket Strike. Wilfred Owen died at the age of 25 and was killed seven days before the end of World War 1. He is regarded as one of the most well-known war poets of the 20th Century, having written an astonishing 110 poems. Under the influence of Romantic, early 19th Century poets such as Wordsworth, Keats and Shelley, Owen produced Dulce Et Decorum†¦show more content†¦The second line brings in the aural aspects of suffering by using words like coughing and cursed. We cursed through sludge shows the intense deepness of the mud, which weakens the men and causes them to swear. Owen tries to make the readers feel pity for the men and does this extremely well by saying All went lame, all blind. This gives us the image that men couldnt see or hear correctly. He uses the metaphor Drunk with fatigue to illustrate the tiredness of the men. Stanza one ends on a note of warning; the danger of which the soldiers are unaware, as they cant hear properly. The first and second verses are all to do with the visual and oral images of the soldiers and the ironic sense that the men are on their way back from the front line so they should be in less threat, yet this is where one man is killed. The next verse begins with a shout of danger: Gas! Gas! Quick boys. Ecstasy is used paradoxically; it shows the speed and panic of the men as they know how important it is to get their helmets on and yet their fingers fail them. The poet tricks the reader by saying Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time which gives us the feeling that everyone has got their helmets on; this isnt true. The next few lines talk about the terror and pain the man goes through as the gas enters his body. The simile floundering like a man in fire was used to demonstrate the panic created by the man as he knewShow MoreRelatedThe Tradition Of War Poetry Essay2221 Words   |  9 Pages The Tradition Of War Poetry By comparing and contrasting a selection of war poems consider the ways in which attitudes to war have been explored and expressed. When considering poetry written post 1900 concentrate on a selection of poems written by Wilfred Owen. Humans have turned to poetry in many different instances as a way of expressing them selves, using the best combination of words, in the best order to express exactly how they are feeling at that moment.

They Say More About You Than You Think Free Essays

They say More About You Than You Think The term â€Å"homophobia† brings to mind individuals that hate those who are homosexual. Most of us arent ignorant to the fact that homophobia is a problem in America. These homophobic people call homosexuals faggots- or â€Å"dykes† with no regard as to if these people are actually gay or not. We will write a custom essay sample on They Say More About You Than You Think or any similar topic only for you Order Now We often believe this is as far as it is taken. Carmen Vazquez’s argument in her 1992 essay -Appearances†, slightly changes the definition ot homophobia (Goodreads). Her argument is effective because she offers convincing evidence of these events, uses a tone that does not ttack those she is standing up against and uses pathos to gain readers emotionally. Vazquez brings the issues going on today that many of us may not be aware of to the readers’ attention; the people who are commonly abused for being lesbian, gay, b’, transgender, or simply appear so. In the paragraph before the essay begins, an important question is Introduced: â€Å"Have you ever gone for a walk in the evening, ridden a city bus, or gone out dancing? Did these activities make you fear for your lifer Most of us would be dble to answer â€Å"rid’ to this (Blumenfeld 489). Vazquez’s one and language throughout the essay was appropriate and effective. She targets an audience of those who are heterosexual to inform them of the issues she presents. Many good examples of figurative language are used to paint vlvld pictures of what it Is like for the LGBTQ community. An example of this is â€Å"The straight Jacket of gender roles suffocates many lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals, forcing them into closets without an exit and threatening our very existence when we tear the closet open† (Blumenfeld 493). Vazquez’s persona and tone increases the audience’s dherence to the claim by not attacking or criticizing those who are homophobic In her attempt to raise awareness and persuade people attected by homophobia to take action. The author uses satire to effectively show how serious about the topic she is Through her use of satire, Vazquez starts out by setting up the scene for her use ot logos. She sets up the scene tor a place called the Castro located in San Francisco, which is a key location for her essay where most of the violence she describes takes place. The way she sets up the scene in San Francisco enables the reader to picture he way Castro looks if they have not been there before. She describes what the homophobic people are doing as a type of â€Å"fun. † This implies they do not see any harm In the actions they are making. Her quoting the obscene use of name calling they use such as â€Å"fucking cocksucking faggots†, â€Å"dyke cunts†, and â€Å"diseased butt fuckers† takes readers back for a moment, making them think â€Å"who would use this language toward another person? (Blumenfeld 490). She Incorporates the use of pathos as she includes these phrases to show the reader the strong language and he emotional damage the people of the LGBTQ community are suffering from. while Vazquez Incorporates her use of pathos, she also uses logos, strengthening this essay. She describes an Incident that includes someone named Brian who was badly beaten, almost taking away his ability to walk, because others on the bus just simply percelvea ne was gay. Vazquez Includes tne statement mace Dy Brain’s lawsuit, â€Å"As claimant lay crumpled and bleeding on the floor of the bus, the bus driver tried to force claimant off the bus so that the driver could get off work and go home† (Blumenfeld 490). This is an effective use of logos because it shows the neglect toward those who appear or are homosexual, thus backing up her argument. She wants the reader to feel frustration toward those who are being harmed because of their sexual orientation. At the same time she wants them to feel sympathetic for these people who take on the everyday struggles of being openly gay. Vazquez then introduces another incident including another man who was harmed almost losing his life because he was presumed gay. In this incident Mickey had an ice pick immersed into his neck leaving him with thirty-six stitches and an lmost severed spinal cord. Mickey was also not gay; he was at a club with his girlfriend. Vazquez says â€Å"Dress like a homo, dance like a homo, must be a homo†¦ evidence of sexual orientation, however, is not necessary for someone to qualify as a potential victim of deadly fury. Appearances will do† (Blumenfeld 491). This quotation strengthens her argument because it backs up the claim she is making: there is no guaranteed method for identifying sexual orientation. She does this by taking two circumstances including straight men that were harmed simply because they appeared to be gay with no actual evidence. This also provides a strong basis for the rest of her essay. After Vazquez provides a strong basis, she then establishes her ethos. She states that these events were reported to the Community United Against Violence, also known as CUAV, and the San Francisco police. She states that she worked at this agency for four years. This gives her the credentials for the reader to form respect for her opinions and information presented making her someone worth listening to. She says in the essay, â€Å"The great majority of these incidents go unreported,† referring to those who are victims of hate crimes (Blumenfeld 491). In 2013 CUAV released a report of hate crimes in 2012 against the LGBTQ community. It was found that only 56% of the surviving victims reported their incidents to the police (National 19). This strengthens her essay because it shows that these events aren’t Just something she made up and that she worked with these incidents long enough to understand what was going on. Along with Vazquez’s use of ethos, she effectively used pathos. The author wants the reader to feel frustration and sympathy towards those who are effected by homophobia by saying things like, â€Å"Enforced heterosexism and pressure to conform o aggressive masculine and passive feminine roles place fag bashers and lesbian baiters in the same psychic prison with their victims, gay or straight† (Blumenfeld 495). The author relies on the values she assumes the audience has about equality. The author says, â€Å"We ask that you embrace your daughter’s desire to swing a bat or be a carpenter, that you nurture your son’s efforts to express affection and sentiment† (Blumenfeld 496). These are effective because she reaches out to the audience’s emotions, gaining more respect from the readers because she does not belittle anyone, but simply asks for their help. The help she asks for is because she is openly a lesbian. In an interview by Kelly Anderson, Vazquez talks about being lesbian among many other topics. She says † tnls Is lesDlan. I’m Dutcn ana I Ilke tne Temme women† (Vazquez 21). I nls also establishes some ethos because it shows that she understands the struggles that come from homophobia. Readers gain more respect for her because it shows that she has experienced some events peculiar to most people who are not homosexual. While Vazquez is a lesbian, she still makes an attempt to mention the counter- argument. She talks about how homophobic people view others that are gay or esbian. She refers to the reason why so many resort to using violence as â€Å"gender betrayal† (Blumenfeld 492). When talking about the many presentations she has done the most common response she has gotten about why being homosexual bothers people is because â€Å"they act like girls† and â€Å"they think that theyre men† (Blumenfeld 493). This is effective because it shows that she tried hearing out other people’s opinions but simply does not understand why they think this way. In the end of her essay, she lists a variety of ways that we can act as a whole to end homophobia. Vazquez changes the definition of â€Å"homophobia† to: individuals ho hate those who appear or are homosexual. In her effective use of ethos, pathos, logos, and the counter-argument, she makes the reader more aware; gay men look like straight men, Just as straight women look like lesbians. Homophobia is more than just calling people names. Next time you think of using derogatory terms such as â€Å"faggot† or â€Å"dyke†, even if you don’t intend any harm, think about the many who have suffered from hate crimes because of their sexuality. How to cite They Say More About You Than You Think, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Functions Of Community Mental Health Social Work Essay Essay Example

The Functions Of Community Mental Health Social Work Essay Essay This bureau study will concentrate upon the intent and maps of a Community Mental Health Team ( Older People ) ( CMHT ( OP ) ) . It will research the responsibilities and duties of the squad, trying to analyze the CMHT ( OP ) part to run intoing the demands of their service users. Outline of the Agency. Based in the north-east of England, this CMHT ( OP ) is one of five vicinity squads, who are portion of a model lending to the proviso of specialist mental wellness services for older people, within this distinguishable geographical country. Basically, a multidisciplinary squad supplying intervention and support for older people with complex and/or long term mental wellness jobs and their carers within the community, directed through an appraisal of demands upon referral. The squad consists of three community psychiatric nurses ( CPNs ) , two societal workers and societal work helper, who carryout such appraisals of demands under the way of the Care Programme Approach ( CPA ) and Single Assessment Process ( SAP ) . Whilst, an occupational healer ( OT ) and an occupational therapy helper ( OTA ) utilise the appraisal procedure to back up in the proviso of specialist equipment to ease rehabilitation. The support worker helps the service user with practical demands in order to back up t heir recovery. We will write a custom essay sample on The Functions Of Community Mental Health Social Work Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Functions Of Community Mental Health Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Functions Of Community Mental Health Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A Principal Social Worker is straight responsible for the direction of the societal work staff and they are in bend accountable to the Local Authority s ( LA ) Community Partnership Manager. The CPNs and back up worker are managed by a Team Manager, who is accountable to a Clinical Services Manager from the NHS Foundation Trust. Both the OT and OTA are managed by a Principal Occupational Therapist whom is accountable to an Assistant Commissioning Services Manager from the NHS Foundation Trust. For the intent of this study, it is of import to clear up that the relationship that appears to be between the LA and NHS Foundation Trust is based chiefly upon the joint commissioning of services. The operation of the CMHT ( OP ) is such that the wellness and societal attention professionals who compose the squad operate from the same base, nevertheless, the services they deliver run aboard one another but are non genuinely integrated , as in the entirety depicted by Lingard and Milne ( 2004 ) . Agency Provision within the Policy and Legislative Context. In recent old ages, the demands of older people with mental wellness jobs have been comparatively neglected with support and resources afforded to the spheres of Mental Health and Older Peoples, insufficiently achieving to the alone demands of this group ( Audit Commission, 2002 ; Marshall and Tibbs, 2006 ) . A permissive legislative model nowadayss in run intoing the demands of older people, so, merely those with the most advanced demands appear to profit, with no specific support towards the demands of older people with mental wellness jobs. Yet, the hopes of righting this balance have been set against a background of current policy that strives towards raising criterions, equity, authorization, societal inclusion, bar and partnership ( Department of Health 1998 ; HM Government, 2007 ) . While such rhetoric agreements with the intrinsic beliefs that permeate the value base of societal work ( BASW, 2002 ) , the world of the clime in which they intersect nowadayss an wholly contradic tory discourse in mundane societal work pattern, as will be farther discussed in this study. Notably, the huge array of policy tendencies and statute law which guides the CMHT ( OP ) is founded upon the rule of seamless attention . Basically, supported through wellness and societal attention professionals working together to enable people to populate independently within the community, as outlined within the NHS and Community Care Act ( NHSCCA ) ( 1990 ) . Indeed, the policy jussive mood of integrating between wellness and societal attention was furthermore established with the debut of the National Service Frameworks for Older Peoples ( NSFOP ) ( Department of Health, 2001 ) . Standard 7 of the NSFOP kind to guarantee that older people with mental wellness jobs could entree integrated services for mental wellness which were efficient and effectual in their bringing. Supplemented further through the debut of the SAP, whereby, older people s wellness and societal attention demands were to be responded to in a well reasoned, efficient mode avoiding unneeded duplicate of appra isals from other professionals ( LAC ( 2002 ) 1 ) . At roundabout the same clip as SAP was being introduced, the modernization of the CPA was besides happening with precise mention to the effectual attention co-ordination of the demands of older people with mental wellness jobs ( Department of Health, 1999 ) . Agency policies and processs are a direct reading of such counsel and are farther underpinned by the rules of the Human Rights Act ( 1998 ) and Data Protection Act ( 1998 ) . Further still, the squad must guarantee that older people with mental wellness jobs receive the attention and intervention they need for their ain wellness or safety and for the protection of other people ( Mental Health Act, 1983 ) . Conversely, it is necessary to follow with the Mental Capacity Act ( 2005 ) , determining that the individual has mental capacity ; nevertheless, it should be presumed that the individual does so unless otherwise called into inquiry. Upon referral the squad is duty edge to supply and an appraisal of the service user s demands under the NHSCCA ( 1990 ) . The point of referral, service user s demands and history, find whether or non the appraisal is based upon the SAP or CPA ( Department of Health, 2004 ) . Even though, policy counsel is in topographic point to turn to the troubles of the interface between these two appraisals procedures ( Department of Health, 1999 ; Department of Health, 2004 ) , research suggests that it has proved vastly debatable with much duplicate across their boundaries ( Hughes et al, 2001 ) . Intelligibly, a deficiency of comprehension around the application of these tools has lead to uncertainness of professional functions and duties doing defeat and confusion to service users and their carers likewise, as they can be left experiencing that their positions are non readily being listened to ( Care Services Improvement Partnership, 2005 ) . Assessed service users demands must run into with certain eligibility standards, prior to being allocated a service. This is based upon clinical eligibility for wellness co-workers and societal attention co-workers are bound by the Fair Access to Care Services counsel ( FACS ) ( LAC ( 2002 ) 13 ) . FACS counsel sought to develop a more just distribution of services by spliting eligibility into four sets. An single whose demands fall in moderate or low stria will be re-directed through signposting to other services. Upon run intoing the significant or critical sets, a service user will undergo a fiscal appraisal to find their part to service proviso and a attention bundle will be devised to run into their identified demands. The efficaciousness of FACS can be seen as a combative issue, peculiarly in the field of mental wellness service proviso. Recent research by Huxley et Al ( 2008 ) suggests that the incompatibility and confusion around the application of FACS by professionals has resulted in reenforcing a turning separation between the subjects of wellness and societal attention within CMHTs. Soon, the LA steering the operation of the societal attention staff within the CMHT ( OP ) is undergoing a immense restructuring of its services. The Personalisation Agenda and greater integrating between wellness and societal attention is the driving force behind this. It will see personal budgets to be the pillar of service proviso, how successful they will be in run intoing the demands of older people with mental wellness jobs will stay to be seen. I predict that unless there are extra resources targeted towards handiness for this group, uptake will be slow, as in that displayed by Direct Payments ( Department of Health, 2005 ) . Service Users and Their Needs. Service users inhabit what can be categorised as a preponderantly rural country made up of little towns. It is of import to observe this CMHT ( OP ) is runing within the boundaries of a LA identified as one of the most economically deprived in England ( Index of Deprivation, 2007 cited in LA and NHS Trusts, 2009 ) . Appreciably, this service user group is likely to be more exposed to the impact of poorness and societal exclusion which correlates straight with increasing mental wellness jobs. Recognition of such factors coupled with a service user s alone history, should let the context of the service user to be more accurately understood and their demands met. Hence, the CMHT ( OP ) presenting on the person-centred attention so aspired to by the NSFOP ( Department of Health, 2001 ) , and back uping the societal worker value to esteem human self-respect and worth, in peculiar with respect to guaranting that service users and carers participate in decision-making procedures ( British Association of Social Workers, 2002 ) . This CMHT ( OP ) works with people over the age of 65 with a important mental wellness job and those under 65 with a cognitive damage ( early onset dementedness ) life within their boundaries, who appear to be in demand of community attention and/or wellness service proviso. As this is a specialist service for older people, the squad does know apart on the footing of age, though non on gender, ethnicity or faith. However, the construct of category is unfastened to challenge ; if we refer to an person s ability to pay for services, demoing how indirect favoritism may inadvertently happen. Frequently, referrals come straight from GP patterns that are aligned to the CMHT ( OP ) ; internal referrals made from other LA societal services squads or as a consequence of an single petition. The squad besides receives referrals from community infirmaries, whereby, it is perceived that patients will necessitate community attention services upon discharge as laid out by the Community Care ( Delayed Discharges ) Act 2003 ( s2 ) . Similarly, in instances where the patient is due for discharge after being detained under Section 4 of the Mental Health Act ( 1983 ) ( MHA 1983 ) , whilst support duties are located with the NHS, a referral will be made to the squad to run into their responsibility of supplying such services under Section 117 ( MHA 1983 ) . Whilst, funding agreements for service proviso under Section 117 ( MHA 1983 ) mean that services are provided free at the point of bringing to such service users, so, this is non the instance for most societal attention proviso. Obviously, funding agreements for such societal attention services are a important concern for service users and their carers, as they are normally capable to a agencies tested fiscal appraisal. Upon finding a service user s part it may do some people to worsen services, particularly those on the borders of eligibility, even when an evident demand exists ( Marshall and Tibbs, 2006 ) . At this point as a societal worker, confined to the worlds of the structural restraints of the bureau, we should oppugn out ability to keep the values of anti-discriminatory pattern ( Thompson, 2006 ) . We would necessitate to see whether we would merely accept the restraints that we were working within, rationalizing that we would be run intoing some demands and keeping some de gree of effectivity. Otherwise, should we dispute the system and advocator for services on behalf of the service user, concomitantly seeking resoluteness of their demands through any gettable step. Obviously, the latter affords more congruity with our societal work values but it does non truly history for the capacity of an single societal worker to contradict wider affairs of resource allotment and handiness, frequently, beyond their control ( Trevithick, 2005 ) . Partnership. Integration of wellness and societal services was made possible through the flexiblenesss of the Health Act ( 1999 ) ( s31 ) , subsequently replaced by the NHS Act ( 2006 ) ( s75 ) , through the undermentioned steps: Lead commissioning Pooled budgets Integrated proviso These possibilities enabled the formation of the CMHT ( OP ) . Although, joint commissioning has been the preferable endeavor of these spouses and their degree of incorporate proviso is besides questionable. It is of import to place the collaborative relationships which exist with the CMHT ( OP ) and other services ( see Appendix 1 ) . Services and their employees may convey their ain dockets or values which can do clash within and around the interactions between such services. Ultimately, they should be working to run into the demands of their service users to the best of their capablenesss ; unluckily this is non ever the instance. Partnership with service users and their carers is profoundly embedded within the operation of the CMHT ( OP ) . The CMHT ( OP ) collates service user feedback through the usage of questionnaires, studies, meetings and ailments processs that they have in topographic point. However, the success of these tools in regulating alteration in the bringing of services is dependent upon service user and carer consciousness of their possible impact. Frontline employees, who are the chief point of contact for most service users, need to be to the full committed and endeavour towards the publicity of constructive feedback. This is an of import portion of the societal work function given their value base and the duties they have towards service users ( BASW, 2002 ) . Agency Activity: Theories and Methods Within the bureau assorted elements of theories and methods are employed, tailored towards a better apprehension of the service user s state of affairs, the troubles encountered and the context in which they occur. One theoretical position used by the CMHT ( OP ) is based upon the work of Carl Rogers. Roger s relationship-based position ( 1961 ) sought to set up that behind the labels created by society people have their ain strengths and capablenesss ; nevertheless, this can merely be amplified through reliable contact, communicating and relationships. Kitwood ( 1997 ) concurred with such thought and proposed a person-centred attack to the attention of people with dementedness ( Kitwood, 1997 as cited in Jacoby et Al, 2008 ) , enabling the curative relationship to be used as a tool to emancipate the service user s capableness. Kitwood suggested that through person-centred attention people with dementedness were non reduced to the restrictions of dementedness but did in fact enjoy a better quality of life from acknowledgment of their alone personhood ( Kitwood, 1997 cited in Jacoby et Al, 2008 ) . Within the CMHT ( OP ) , societal workers use the relationship to follow an individualized attack to measuring and run intoing the demands of the individual with dementedness, the empowering nature of such an attack agreements with the societal work values of human self-respect and worth ( BASW, 2002 ) . Within the attention program, they support the individual to stay every bit independent as possible but with respect given to run intoing the demands of the individual s disablement as required. The CMHT ( OP ) may set about a task-centred attack to actuate alteration within a relationship-based position. The benefits are such that it is short-run, time-limited, seeking further to heighten the capablenesss of the service user through job resolution in partnership with the practician ( Trevithick, 2005 ) . Research suggests that there are benefits to following this attack with older people, whereby, ends directed at resources that enable the individual to stay within their ain place improve their quality of life ( Challis and Davies, 1989 in Coulshed and Orme, 1998 ) . Crisis theory is employed within the CMHT ( OP ) , when a service user is faced with the trouble imposed by such an event. Distress in otherwise stable fortunes is the definition given to crisis, being that a individual may experience unable to get by because of such alteration ( Chui and Ford, 2000 in Stepney and Ford, 2000 ) . Within this, it is believed that the individual meeting the crisis has the competency for problem-solving but at this precise clip they do non hold the capacity for call uping such operation, at this point the societal worker intervenes. Crisis intercession, ab initio, struggles with our societal work value base as it can be seen to be intrusive and oppressive through application ( Lishman, 2007 ) . Payne ( 2005 ) criticises this intercession for being excessively brief, avoiding the venue of long-run jobs and social unfairnesss. This is important given the multiple subjugations that older people with mental wellness jobs are obviously still sing within socie ty ( Brooker, 2008 in Jacoby et Al, 2008 ) . Appropriately, the CMHT ( OP ) appreciates this point and is able to understand the service user s place through an ecological position. By working in partnership with service users, societal workers seek to analyze the structural disadvantage faced by older people with mental wellness jobs and see the wider societal support webs that could be harnessed for their benefit ( Jack and Jack, 2000 in Stepney and Ford, 2000 ) . This meets with the societal work value of advancing societal justness ( BASW, 2002 ) . Measuring the Agency. The squad may transport the rubric CMHT ( OP ) and be runing under a multi-disciplinary, interagency formation but the degree of operation and integrating is badly compromised by the clear divisions bing at both a managerial and operational degree. Evidence suggests that such weaknesss are common amongst such squads ( Audit Commission, 2002 ; Lingard A ; Milne, 2004 ) . A recent survey undertaken by Tucker et Al ( 2009 ) further emphasised that, frequently, societal work staff were non managed by a individual lead for the CMHT ( OP ) , nor did they use the same certification for appraisals as their wellness co-workers. Opportunities to advance joint working were progressively exacerbated by the mutual exclusiveness of IT systems within the squad for sharing information and the absence of an in agreement operational policy for the squad, such incongruousness resonates within this CMHT ( OP ) . Staff within the squad effort to countervail such troubles by furthering good working deali ngss with their fellow co-workers and informally sharing information where IT system restrict entree, whilst still adhering to policies around consent for sharing information. Given the structural lacks of the CMHT ( OP ) , so, we should non undervalue the important degree of support and committedness provided by the professionals within the squad. Neither should we disregard the value this service holds for service users and their carers. One service user commented that we d be lost without [ the societal worker and service ] and we did nt cognize if there was any aid out at that place but [ mentioning to the societal worker ] pointed us in the right way . The CMHT ( OP ) undertakes a batch of valuable preventive work with respects to early sensing and attach toing support for service users and their carers, which proves good in footings of consistence of attention, as an person s illness develops. Unfortunately, the model pattern and benefits of the service are lost in the LA s unequal appraisal of the societal work part. Given that public presentation information associating to work undertaken for older people with mental wellness jobs is non avail able individually as it is included in the information for all older people aged 65 old ages and over ( LA and NHS Trusts, 2009 ) . Decision. Presently, the proposals of a joint scheme for the commissioning of services for older people with mental wellness is doing major service reconfiguration with the purpose of better functioning the demands of the country. This program is seeing the move of this CMHT ( OP ) from its current site to another some 11 stat mis off, at the terminal of this fiscal twelvemonth, 2009/10. Whilst, I can appreciate the demand for reconstituting I can non understand how the demands of this vicinity will be better met by professionals who have to pass more clip going to make them. Surely, it would be better to aim resources at a managerial and operational degree, seeking better communicating between the directors of the squad, so to cut down the sum of duplicate taking topographic point and the cost deduction from this. Futile as this may be, if the issues around the appraisal procedure remain unsolved, but it may be deserving trusting that the recent audience around the possibilities of a Common A ssessment Framework for Adults ( Department of Health, 2009 ) , will travel some manner towards rectifying such jobs.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free sample - Childrens Health. translation missing

Childrens Health. Children's HealthAccording to the auther the reason of this study is because of the emerging potential toxity in humans. The investigation done is on how urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolities is related to childrens intellectual functioning. He has taken a comprehensive study of elementary children in five cities in south Korea by taking a cross-section examination on   the urine phthalate concentrations on both the children and their mothers.   The findings show that they measured  Ã‚   â€Å"mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)† which are metabolies of â€Å" di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and mono-nbutyl phthalate (MBP), a metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP)† in the urine .   â€Å"The geometricmean (ln) concentrations of MEHP, MEOHP, and MBP were 21.3 ÃŽ ¼g/L [geometric SD (GSD) = 2.2 ÃŽ ¼g/L; range, 0.5-445.4], 18.0 ÃŽ ¼g/L (GSD = 2.4; range, 0.07-291.1), and 48.9 ÃŽ ¼g/L (GSD = 2.2; range, 2.1- 1645.5), respectively†. The chronological results show that the full scale IQ and verbal IQ were nagatively associated with DEHP but not   WITH DBP metabolities. The results of this finding   are very comprehensive as thay also show that there is a negative relationship between trhe children vocabulary use and the concentration of the urine. After an extensive marternal IQ controll the findings shw that a large inverse relationship between DEHP metabolities and the use of vocabulary also remained. There is a difference between boys and girls as boys show a negative association between increasing MEHP phthalate concentrations and the total sum of DEHP metabolite concentrations while girls   shown   had little or no association between these variables. Howevr the auther does not show clear evidence on the same and critical study in the field is highly required. In the methods of study the auther extensively talks of  Ã‚   a study conducted between april and october 2008 which was named â€Å" Effects of Pollution on Neurobehavioral Development and future Policies to Protect our children†. The study assessed different elements such as Lead, Mercury and manganese in the dlood as welll as neurocognitive functioning of children including attention and concentration together with   their general intelligence. So as to asses the childrens marternal IQ, their child developmental state, their mothers were also interviewed. The study was well formulated and carried out as mothers were   given quistionares which were to be filled on the details regarding the surrounding environment. The study had followed all the rules and regulations as it had been passed by â€Å"The Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University Hospital†.   Applications had been sent to elementary children and their mothers for them to participate i n the study and 667 children accompanied by their mothers turned in. While measuring childrens cognitive functioning, students were availed with a form,   â€Å"KEDI-WISC† which consisted   vocabularly, arithmetic, picture arrangement and block design tests. The form according to the auther is validated   with Korean children to use as a determiner of global estimates of intellectual functioning. Since the examiners in the study were not aware of the children IQ, they used   â€Å"Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) â€Å" to their mothers while they were measuring   martenal cognitive function. The tests on this included   pure arrangement, vocalbulary use and block design tests.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On determining phthalate metabolites in urine   in the   study   â€Å"primary metabolite of dibutylphthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), andtwo secondary metabolites of DEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP) were used†. Urine was collected using paper cups from   all the children who were subject to the study between nine and eleven in the morning. After collection, th urine was placed in containers   â€Å"(high-clarity polypropylene Falcon tubes)† and stored at –20 °C   untill the analyzation of the . Field blanks consisted of purified water. The are then brought to room temperature and vortexed after thawing.  Ã‚   Acritical and extensive of the methods used has been well shown in the study following all steps and explanation of the procedures. At all   this study has a critical and technical approach as it takes the   reader through all the steps used in the study. While doing the statistcal analysis the study, used t-tests of the students or â€Å"(ANOVAs)† for testing continues variables and the chisquare test for categorical mvariables. A comprehensive use of   linear regression analysis was used in the study to analyse the association between â€Å"urine phthalate (MEOHP,MEHP, and MBP) concentration and WISC IQ scores†. Since the distribution of the metabolite was skewed in the sample, log-transformed values were highly used. From the variables on the analysis carried out regression models have been built. Taking th IQ score as the primary dependent variable and the urine phthalate concentrations as the primary independent variables.   A set of covariates based on the predicators childrens cognitive functioning helped to perform the regression analysis.   After this study models have been improved on the developmental socioeconomic and IQ variables. The study however does not give us clear evidence on the martenal IQ as it present models with and without   the Martenal IQ. In the study all analysis were considered important. The study in their results analyzing the relationship between environmental exposure to phthalates and children’s IQ scores show that there is a negative association between IQ and urine phthalates in humans. The study is of great significance comparing it with other studies that have been done since its the first to show the above results. It is there true to say that a child’s IQ may be affected by genetic, educational, familial and social factors.however these results may contrast with any   observed association between the line of study and the income. To help readers nunderstand this , this study tried to determine whether â€Å"phthalates were inversely associated with children’scognition independent of potential confounders†. Before the study could adjust for martenal IQ, it found inverse relationships between â€Å"MEHP, MEOHP, and the sum of secondarymetabolites for DEHP and the children’sFSIQ, VIQ, and vocabulary and block design Scores † also vocabulary score was negatively associated with MBP. This study found that maternal IQ is one of the cofounders of children’s IQ. The study also found that adjusting for a confounder that has a stronger effect than the valuable of interest can most of the time lead to underratings in the true effect of this variable. Control for maternal IQ according to the study had a great impact on the effect size of the alliance between phthalates and IQ. It may act as a confounder especially if the maternal IQ and the level of phthalates in children   have a link to each other. It is noted that MIQ might have had an influence on the childrens environmental exposure to the substances which were to be seen on th level of phthalate metabolites.  Ã‚   All in all MIQ have effects on the children IQ, therefore affecting affecting the association between child IQ and phthalate level however the study revealed that after MIQ, MEHP, MEOHP, and the sum of secondary metabolites of DEHP had been adjusted there were inverse relationships with children’s vocabulary scores. We cannot at whtsoever means say that this study provided enough evidence of a definative association between phthalates with children’s IQ indipendent of MIQ because there could be a residual confounding of matarnal IQ. The study shows that children are of special concern regarding phthalate exposure due to their neurodevelopmental state. Also if they are subjected to neurotoxic agents, there is likelyhood that they will suffer due to critical periods of vulnerability for their developing nerves. Even after birth, Neurotoxic agents could disrupt the temporal and regional emergence of critical Developmental processes. Even if this study has most of advantages, it has some disadvantages. Atleast 16 phthalene metabolites in urine can be measured but in this study only three were measured which were limited to the specifications of the study. They measured three based on availability of standard , childrens likely exposure, and technical experience of the analysis. They only used one measurement, which may not have same results as when they would have in examining the level and severity of chronic exposure. Judging from a single spot-urine measurement could have given wrong answers, as it may not reflect long term-exposure since Phthalates are rapidly metabolized and excreted. However, on phthalate measurements over time according to other different studies, there is moderate consistency. The study assumes that when multiple experiments are consistent, then a single measurement reflects a typical measurement. Another limitation is that the study did not show results of maternal levels of exposure. Also the maternal IQ had a large effect size on the associations making it not possible to tell whether the quality of the home environment and stimulation provided in the home could be   potential confounders. This article is a succes as it gives the readers a clear picture of what was carried out , the mode of study, the evidence used, materials and methods. Many of the readers would get   the objectives of the writer and accesit according to his or her expectations. However, the study has been based on many assumptions making the reader to doubt its results. I would recommend that as you read this article it is critical that you have your objective of the findings and the discussion made by the writer keeping in mind that   it has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Battle of Guilford Court House in the American Revolution

Battle of Guilford Court House in the American Revolution Battle of Guilford Courthouse - Conflict Date: The Battle of Guilford Court House occurred on March 15, 1781, and was part of the southern campaign of the American Revolution (1775-1783). Armies Commanders: Americans Major General Nathanael Greene4,400 men British Lieutenant General Lord Charles Cornwallis1,900 men Battle of Guilford Court House - Background: In the wake of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarletons defeat at the Battle of Cowpens in January 1781, Lieutenant General Lord Charles Cornwallis turned his attention to pursuing Major General Nathanael Greenes small army. Racing through North Carolina, Greene was able to escape over the swollen Dan River before the British could bring him to battle. Making camp, Greene was reinforced by fresh troops and militia from North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. Pausing at Hillsborough, Cornwallis attempted to forage for supplies with little success before moving on to the forks of Deep River.   He also endeavored to recruit Loyalist troops from the region. While there on March 14, Cornwallis was informed that General Richard Butler was moving to assault his troops. In actuality, Butler had led the reinforcements that had joined Greene. The following night, he received reports that the Americans were near Guilford Court House. Despite only having 1,900 men on hand, Cornwallis resolved to take the offensive.   Detaching his baggage train, his army began marching that morning. Greene, having re-crossed the Dan, had established a position near Guilford Court House. Forming his 4,400 men in three lines, he loosely replicated the alignment used by Brigadier General Daniel Morgan at Cowpens. Battle of Guilford Court House - Greenes Plan: Unlike the previous battle, Greenes lines were several hundred yards apart and were unable to support each other. The first line was comprised of North Carolina militia and rifleman, while the second consisted of Virginia militia situated in a thick forest. Greenes final and strongest line was comprised of his Continental regulars and artillery. A road ran through the center of the American position. The fighting opened approximately four miles from the Court House when Tarletons Light Dragoons encountered Lieutenant Colonel Henry Light Horse Harry Lees men near Quaker New Garden Meeting House. Battle of Guilford Court House - Fighting Begins: After a  sharp fight which led the 23rd Regiment of Foot advancing to aid Tarleton, Lee withdrew back to the main American lines. Surveying Greenes lines, which were on rising ground, Cornwallis began advancing his men along the west side of the road around 1:30 PM. Moving forward, British troops began taking heavy fire from the North Carolina militia which was positioned behind a fence. The militia was supported by Lees men who had taken a position on their left flank. Taking casualties, the British officers urged their men forward, ultimately compelling the militia to break and flee into the nearby woods (Map). Battle of Guilford Court House - Cornwallis Bloodied: Advancing into the woods, the British quickly encountered the Virginia militia. On their right, a Hessian regiment pursued Lees men and Colonel William Campbells riflemen away from the main battle. In the woods, the Virginians offered stiff resistance and fighting often became hand-to-hand. After half and hour of bloody fighting which saw a number of disjointed British attacks, Cornwallis men were able to flank the Virginians and force them to retreat. Having fought two battles, the British emerged from the wood to find Greenes third line on high ground across an open field. Charging forward, British troops on the left, led by Lieutenant Colonel James Webster, received a disciplined volley from Greenes Continentals. Thrown back, with heavy casualties, including Webster, they regrouped for another attack. To the east of the road, British troops, led by Brigadier General Charles OHara, succeeded in breaking through the 2nd Maryland and turning Greenes left flank. To avert disaster, the 1st Maryland turned and counterattacked, while Lieutenant Colonel William Washingtons dragoons struck the British in the rear. In an effort to save his men, Cornwallis ordered his artillery to fire grapeshot into the melee. This desperate move killed as many of his own men as Americans, however it halted Greenes counterattack. Though the outcome was still in doubt, Greene was concerned about the gap in his lines. Judging it prudent to depart the field, he ordered a withdrawal up Reedy Creek Road towards Speedwell Ironworks on Troublesome Creek. Cornwallis attempted a pursuit, however his casualties were so high that it was quickly abandoned when Greenes Virginia Continentals offered resistance. Battle of Guilford Court House - Aftermath: The Battle of Guilford Court House cost Greene 79 killed and 185 wounded. For Cornwallis, the affair was much bloodier with losses numbering 93 dead and 413 wounded. These amounted to over a quarter of his force. While a tactical victory for the British, Guilford Court House cost the British losses they could ill-afford.   Though unhappy with the result of the engagement, Greene wrote to the Continental Congress and stated that the British have met with a defeat in a victory. Low on supplies and men, Cornwallis retired to Wilmington, NC to rest and refit. Shortly thereafter, he embarked on an invasion of Virginia. Freed from facing Cornwallis, Greene set about liberating much of South Carolina and Georgia from the British. Cornwallis campaign in Virginia would end that October with his surrender following the Battle of Yorktown. Selected Sources Guilford Court House National Military ParkBritish Battles: Battle of Guilford Court HouseUS Army Center for Military History: Battle of Guilford Courthouse

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Comments on BP 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Comments on BP 3 - Essay Example The company will outsource some of its operations and will enter into a contract with the website development company in order to come up with attractive website. The team has effectively defined and elaborated all important elements and processed involved in the operation and transaction. The team has also included the elements of customer service and customer relationship management in order to make sure that the high customer value is provided to all customers. The company will also use social media techniques in order to market and promote the website and attract more traffic. The business model of the company is bit complicated as it involves several virtual links and partners. But the business model canvas provided by the team in the appendix has made it easier to comprehend the complete links and connections among all important partners and also has explained clearly how the business will operate. Lastly, the team has been able to calculate the cost behind the whole business model and has included all important costs and expenses in order to come up with more realistic figures. The major strength of this business plan is the testing of the product at the target market before launching it. This will allow the company to come up with the final product which accords with the needs and demands of the customers and there will be relatively less chances of rejection or failure. All the feedbacks and comments generated as a result of this pre-launch testing will be used by the company in order to improve the final product. This testing also allowed the company to identify the most profitable target segment. The company relies on heavy input from the customers and devises strategies accordingly. This, in turn, will allow increasing the customers’ satisfaction and attracting more customers. The main idea behind the whole business is to provide the eating products to the customers on mobile trucks and vehicles. This will allow the company